The following lists of selected sources are organized according to six somewhat overlapping categories.
Some of the entries have been annotated.
1) and 2) Websites and Books containing comprehensive general information about the
pre-Nazi era lives of Jews in Europe, the Nazis’ rise to power, the persecution and Holocaust
perpetrated by the Nazis and their collaborators.
3) Archives and Other Unpublished Sources.
4) Personal Memoirs and/or Historical Narratives -- more closely related to the challenges
and persecution confronted by the members of the extended Jellinek family from 1938 on, such as the family
members’ vastly changed and dispersed post-Anschluss environments and their efforts to escape from
Vienna, Brno and Lwow.
5) Literary Works that have had a particularly strong influence on the construction of this
6) Collections of revealing and tragic Shoah Letters.
http://www.Centropa.org brings you to the website of Centropa:
Central Europe Center for Research and Documentation, headquartered in Vienna.
This organization’s research database has more
than 1200 audio interviews, a 22,000 digitized photo database, films, exhibits, publications and educational
materials, focussing on the lives that survivors led before the Holocaust, vs. the means of
victimhood, persecution and murder.
http://www.Doew.at/english brings you to the
English language section of the website of the Dokumentationsarchiv des österreichischen
Widerstandes (Documentation Centre of Austrian Resistance DÖW). The main German
language part of the website is accessed through: http://www.Doew.at.
This organization is focussed on the following aspects of the Holocaust
in Austria: resistance and persecution, exile, Nazi murder crimes, concentration camps, criminal medical
policies, justice system in the Nazi era. Post-war policies for prosecution of Nazi criminals,
right-wing extremism, welfare and restitution for Nazi victims are also dealt with in the DOW's activities
in education, research, publishing, exhibitions, building and maintaining its archive, library, oral
history collection and databases, including its database of 63,200 + names of Austrian Jewish victims of
brings you to the Jewish Virtual Library’s Holocaust section, from which one can access
various topics and subtopics, such as:
provides an expandable Timeline of Jewish Persecution, 1932 - 1945 within the broader
provides 21 maps in the “Germany & the Nazis” section within the “World
War II Maps” section, within the broader “Reference”
Jüdisches Museum Wien (Jewish Museum Vienna)
From this Jewish Museum’s internet homepage, you can access this Museum’s Archive,
Library, and Exhibitions pages.
http://www.lbi.org brings you to the website of the Leo
Baeck Institute - in New York City/Berlin “... a research library [and archive]
devoted to the study of the history and culture of German speaking Jewry.”
This Institute’s 1938 Projekt : Posts from the Past presents a
different personal document for each day of 1938, that reveals a Jewish person or family’s
suffering from the growing Nazi persecution in Germany and post-Anschluss Austria, and the struggles to
emigrate and escape from there. The letters, diary entries and photographs, as well as the accompanying
commentary, also show how pivotal a year 1938 was in the devolution towards war and the Holocaust. Hugo
Jellinek’s letters to his daughter, Gisella Nadja, of July 26, 1938 and August 21, 1938, as well as
Berta Jellinek's sisterly letter to Gisella Nadja, of August 28, 1938 represent those
particular days of 1938, and can be viewed on the LBI 1938 Projekt website via the above
hyperlinks, as well as in the Letters section of this ShoahLetters website.
http://sfi.usc.edu brings you to the website of
The Institute for Visual History and Education of the University of Southern California Shoah
This Institute, founded by Steven
Spielberg in 1994, as the Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation, now has almost
52,000 audio visual testimonies of survivors and witnesses of the Holocaust, as well as of the
genocide in Rwanda.
http://sfi.usc.edu/search brings one directly to the
“Search" section of the Institute’s Visual History Archive.
is the online component of the interdisciplinary, multimedia Echoes and
Reflections program. Although primarily intended to train secondary educators to teach about
the Holocaust and genocide, any adult learner can benefit from this comprehensive
resource. http://iwitness.usc.edu/SFI/ complements
Echoes and Reflections and contains 1300 video testimonies and approximately 200
interdisciplinary, multimedia activities.
http://www.USHMM.org brings you to the website of
the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, D.C., USA.
The following three links each enable you
to directly access text on various topics/themes, as well as historical film footage and photos,
maps, images of artifacts, audio clips and personal testimony:
brings you to the Holocaust Encyclopedia.
brings you to articles which provide background information, as well as facts on specific events in the
following period designations: 1914 through 1932, 1933 - 38, 1939 -41, 1942 - 45, after 1945 through
brings you to 1938 Key Dates. From this webpage, you can access Related Articles, which
provide facts on Key Dates in all of the other years between 1933 - 1948.
http://www.YadVashem.org brings you to the
website of Yad Vashem - The Holocaust Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority in
Yad Vashem’s Holocaust
allows you to click for increasingly detailed information and explanations on significant events during
the years 1914 - 1945.
you to the [on-line] Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe of the YIVO Institute for
“...mission is to preserve, study and teach the cultural history of Jewish life throughout
Eastern Europe, Germany and Russia.”
provides 60 interactive maps of Eastern Europe.
provides fascinating research, videos of oral histories, teaching lessons, and details of live public
events, many incorporating social action, throughout the city of Vienna, all designed to educate and
memorialize, raise consciousness and "...stimulate fresh conversations
in novel formats regarding the Holocaust and National Socialism" [involving
multiple Austrian victim groups in addition to the Jews, e.g., homosexuals, Roma and Sinti]. The Vienna
Project was inspired by the Project's conceiver and director, Karen Frostig's reading of her
family 'Shoah Letters'; coincidentally closely akin to the inspiration for this website,
The following three letters, viewable now in
the Letters section of ShoahLetters.org, were read publicly in the
Vienna Project's city-wide Reading Marathon, as part of the October 2014 closing events: Hugo
Jellinek's letter of October 14, 1938, Karl Jellinek's letter,
with an estimated date of September 2 - 5, 1939, and Gisela Jellinek
Schlesinger's letter of mid-March - May 1939.
Arad, Yitzhak, Israel Gutman and Abraham Margaliot, eds. Documents on the Holocaust
(Lincoln, Nebraska, London and Jerusalem, 1999).
Note: Document 63 - “Deportation of
Jews from Austria to Nisko (Lublin), October 1939, in the Report by the Central Office for
Jewish Emigration, October 18, 1939,” includes the exact Nazi order which resulted in Siegfried Jellinek’s deportation from Vienna to Nisko
on October 20, 1939; Document 63 (pp. 143 - 144), is just one of this book’s
“...213 documents on the theory, planning, and execution of, and reaction and resistance to, the
Nazi plan to exterminate European Jews...”
See also in this website’s
Documents section, the entry on Siegfried’s Jellinek in the “List of Jews Deported from Vienna to Nisko on October
20, 1939, and Related Cover Pages.”
The World Must Know: The History of the Holocaust
As Told In the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (Boston, 1993).
The Origins of the Final Solution: The
Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 - March 1942 (Jerusalem and Lincoln, Nebraska, 2005).
The War Against the Jews: 1933 -1945 (New
My People: the Story of the Jews (New York &
All of Eban’s eloquent writing is brilliantly insightful, but his chapter on
“The Holocaust” is most directly relevant to this website.
The Holocaust: The Third Reich and the Jews (Essex,
Note: This cogent and insightful book, which is
one of the “Seminar Studies in History,” is divided into four main parts: THE BACKGROUND,
ASSESSMENT, ANALYSIS and DOCUMENTS.
B. G. Rudolph
Lectures in Judaic Studies (New York, 1971).
"The Human Condition After Auschwitz: A Jewish
Testimony A Generation After." The ninth annual lecture in Syracuse University's
Note: This 15 -page publication of Fackenheim's
lecture contains many ideas which are thought-provoking, powerful and still apt. The following are
two short excerpts from p. 9 and p. 11, respectively:
"Despite all necessary attempts to
the Nazi system in the end exceeds all comprehension. One cannot comprehend but only confront and
". . . Jewish survival after Auschwitz
is...in itself and without any further reasons or theological justifications a sacred
to all mankind that life and love, not death and hate, shall prevail."
Nazi Germany and the Jews: Volume 1: The
Years of Persecution, 1933 - 1939 (New York, 1997).
______________. The Years of Extermination: Nazi Germany and the Jews 1939 - 1945
(New York, 2007).
The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe During
the Second World War (New York, 1985).
______________. Kristallnacht: Prelude to Destruction (New York, 2006).
To Bear Witness: Holocaust
Remembrance at Yad Vashem (Jerusalem, 2005).
Halevy, Yechiam and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Historical Atlas of
World War II (New York, 1996).
Note: This Atlas contains 252 pages of maps and
explanatory text pertaining to different
European regions and time periods, including pre and post-war Europe, Nazi German
conquests and administration, deportations, ghettos, massacres, killing centers, rescue and Jewish armed
resistance activity, death marches and liberation. The maps of “Eastern
Europe After the German-Soviet Pact 1939 - 1940” (p. 31), and of the “German
Administration of Europe 1942” (p. 33), were of particular help in our construction of Map
2 and 3 for this website.
The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words
and Pictures (Lincolnwood, Illinois, 2007).
Between Dignity and Despair: Jewish Life in Nazi
Germany (New York and Oxford, 1998).
Unsettled: An Anthropology of the Jews (New York,
Konner’s chapter (with the appropriately disturbing title) “Smoke: How the Germans
Gave the Jews Graves in the Air” is distinctive in its presentation of excerpts from Rabbis'
Responsa of 1941 - 2, Eli Wiesel,
Primo Levy, Paul Celan, Ruth Beker, Simon Wiesenthal, Viktor Frankl, as well as contemporary historians
In the Garden of Beasts: Love, Terror, and an American
the US Ambassador, William Dodd] in Hitler’s Berlin (New York, 2011).
The Footprint of Robbery:Testimonies and Documents on
the Looting of
Holocaust Victims’ Assets (The Center for Study of Jewish Heroism - March of the Living,
1938: Hitler’s Gamble (New York, 2009).
The Jews of Bohemia & Moravia: Facing the
Especially relevant to Hugo Jellinek and his
immediate family's experiences are: Chapter 3, THE AFTERMATH OF MUNICH and
Chapter 4, UNDER GERMAN OCCUPATION.
On the Eve: The Jews of Europe Before the Second
(New York, 2012).
Note: Bernard Wasserstein includes discussion of
‘our’ Jellinek family’s post-Anschluss experiences, especially that of
Hugo Jellinek’s, in this multi-faceted
“...portrait of a
[Jewish] world on the brink of annihilation.” [from front flap of this book’s dust
jacket, italics added here for emphasis.] There are also quotes from four of Hugo’s letters and
of Gisela Jellinek Schlesinger’s, written in 1938 and 1939, as well as important facts on
Hugo’s immediate family’s fate in the “Eplilogue: Fates Known and Unknown.”
(see pp. 363- 365, 425 - 426, 445).
Prof. Wasserstein writes at the end of his
introduction to this book (p. XXI), that his
“...fundamental objective has been to try to restore forgotten men, women, and children to the
historical record, to breathe renewed life momentarily into those who were soon to be dry
bones.” This writer [P. Jellinek] believes that Prof. Wasserstein’s objective was
admirably met, and hopes that you, the viewer and reader of this website will feel moved and
influenced by even just
the small measure of that kind of ‘restoration’ and ‘renewed life’
Civilization: A History of Europe in Our Time (New York, 2007).
Note: Although a full understanding of the
Nazis’ and their
collaborators‘ murder of Jews and destruction of Eastern European
Jewish culture would be aided by reading this entire
massive work, the chapters most directly relevant are: “Depression
and Terror 1929 - 1936,” “Europe in the 1930s,” Spiral into War 1936 -
1939,” Hitler Triumphant 1939 - 1942,” Life and Death in Wartime,” and
“End of Hitler’s Europe 1942 - 1945.” (pp. 165 - 395).
____________. Britain and the Jews of Europe:
1939 - 1945 (London and Oxford, 1979 and revised, 1988).
Wasserstein poses the following question in his preface to this book: ". . . was
Britain's war-time policy towards the Jewish problem the only possible one compatible with the
overriding end of victory?" --- and then proceeds to give overwhelming documentary evidence to cause
this reader [P. Jellinek] to form a decidedly negative answer. This book tells the true, extremely
disheartening story of Britain's war-time ". . . near total ban on Jewish refugee immigration to
Britain, the restrictive immigration policy in Palestine, the failure to aid Jewish resistance in Europe,
and the rejection of the scheme for the Allied bombing of Auschwitz."
Archives and Other Unpublished Sources
*Please note: throughout this
alphabeticized list of archival sources, the German language website, if any, precedes the English
Archiv der Universität Wien (Vienna University Archive)
sample of the forms that Karl Jellinek was required to fill out in order to enroll each semester between
1918 - 1921, in his Doctor of Law and Political Science studies, will be displayed in the Documents
section of this website in the future.
The Central Archives for the
History of the Jewish People
The following statement about family letters (from the CAHJP website appeal to
“Donate Materials”) corroborates the underlying concept of this ShoahLetters.org
“The letters [“...personal or family correspondence
written from Europe to relatives in the U.S., Israel or elsewhere – especially for the years preceding
W.W.II, but also for earlier periods...”]
enable a glimpse into the real lives of the people who wrote them and are therefore of great historical
Selected image files from the Viennese collection of the CAHJP, showing a.) key
pages of the 1923 - 24 Annual Report of the Zionist fraternal organization that Karl Jellinek
led, Der Lese-und Redehalle jüdischer Hochschüler in Wien (The Reading and Lecture Hall
of Jewish Students in Vienna); b.) invitations from this same organization to lectures,
concerts, Hanukkah celebrations, receptions and 'dance - evenings' between the years 1923 - 25;
and c.) pages of handwritten correspondence between Siegfried Jellinek and the Israelitische
Kultusgemeinde, Wien (the central organization of The Jewish Community, Vienna), from 1911 -
[1920s or 30s?], will be displayed on ShoahLetters.org in the future.
The key information in this organization’s
Shoah-Opferdatenbanken (Shoah Victim Databank) on the births, deportations and deaths of
Siegmund Jellinek, Siegfried Jellinek, Gisela Jellinek Schlesinger, Leopold Schlesinger, and Mathilde/Manzie
Eckstein corroborate the epistolary and other evidence already on this website, but may still be displayed
the Documents section of this website in the future.
Wien - Matriken (Jewish Community of Vienna -
Some of the birth and marriage records of key Jellinek family members, as well as photos of the collection
of IKG’s annual birth record books, which reveal the declining number of Jewish births in Vienna
from 1927 - 1938, will be displayed in the Documents and Images sections of this website
in the future.
Österreichisches Staatsarchiv (War Archive: Austrian
(aka Die Abteilung Kriegsarchiv des
Österreichischen Staatsarchiv - The War Archive Department of the Austrian State Archives)
Some of the records on Karl Jellinek’s military service during
World War I, that were obtained from this archive, will be displayed in the Documents section in
Staatsarchiv (Austrian State Archives)
Of the documents provided by this archive, the
following will be displayed on this website in the future: the Vermögensverzeichnis (asset
inventory) filled out by Siegmund Jellinek on the day before his deportation from Vienna to Theresienstadt,
the Vermögensverzeichnis that Leopold and Gisela Jellinek Schlesinger were forced to fill out
before their deportation, and a sampling of the 1942 - 1944 Nazi rulings regarding money owed to Dr. Karl
Jellinek for his pre-Anschluss legal services.
communication with Helene Luckerbauer and the property history
record of the Oberhollabrunn, Austria building
in which Siegmund Jellinek and his family lived and in which Siegmund J. served as the synagogue
Oberkantor (chief cantor), spiritual leader and religion teacher, provided by Helene
Luckerbauer of Oberhollabrunn, (aka Hollabrunn) in 2008.
The videotape and/or the German transcript and English translation of Mrs. Luckerbauer’s and her
husband’s recollections and thoughts about the synagogue and its fate under
the Nazis and afterwards, as well as the (false) property history record will be displayed in the
Documents section of this website in the future.
Wiener Stadt- und
Landesarchiv (City and Provincial Archives of Vienna)
Some of the particularly informative documents obtained
from this archive, that will be displayed in the Documents section of this website in the
“Historische Meldeunterlagen” (historical residential documents) of key Jellinek and
Eckstein family members.
b.) the 1938 Nazi proposal, order and
“official juridical decision” for the dissolution of (and ‘annexation’ of the
possessions of) the Jewish students’ Zionist association that Karl Jellinek led and represented during
some of the 1920s and 30s.
Personal Memoirs and/or Historical Narratives of Particular
Relevance to the Jellinek
Elder of the Jews”: Jakob Edelstein
of Theresienstadt (published in 1981, in Hebrew as Edelshtain neged ha-zeman (Edelstein Against
Time); published in E. Abel’s English translation, New York, 1989.
Last Waltz in Vienna: The Rise and Destruction of a
Family, 1842 - 1942 (London, 1981, New York, 1982).
De Silva, Cara. ed. In Memory’s Kitchen: A Legacy From the Women of Terezín
(Northvale, N. J. and London, 1996).
de Waal, Edmund. The Hare With Amber Eyes: A Hidden Inheritance (New York, 2010).
Flight From The Reich:
Refugee Jews, 1933 - 1946 (W. W. Norton & Co., New York, 2009).
In addition to this book’s general and specific, relevant and poignant information on the plight of
all Viennese Jews, the 14th chapter’s very title, Loved Ones Become Letters, as well as many of its
descriptions and observations, resonate particularly strongly with the Jellinek and Eckstein families’
experience. (pp. 245 - 263)
Ihr Müsst Hier Weg: Die jüdische Gemeinde
Hollabrunn von 1850 bis 1938 (You Must Get Out of Here: The Jewish Community of Hollabrunn from 1850 -
Note: On pp. 20, 22 - 23, there is information
(albeit not always fully complete or correct) about Siegmund
Jellinek’s role as the Hollabrunn community’s last cantor, spiritual leader, registrar,
and religion teacher, and the person in whose house the temple was
Pp. 54 -55 and 59 contain information about
the September 1938, Nazi-forced expulsion of Jews from Hollabrun, and Siegmund J.’s taking the
Hollabrunn community registers
with him to Vienna [to try to protect the identities/lives of those registered]. An account of the
subsequent discovery and seizure of those records from Gisela
Jellinek Schlesinger in Siegmund J.’s apartment in Vienna in March 1939 is also presented.
On page 75, in the Deportationen
(Deportations) section, and on pages 101 - 102 in the chapter: “SCHICKSALE DER HOLLABRUNNER JUDEN UND
(Fates of Hollabrunn’s Jews), basic facts are presented about the pre-Nazi era lives,
deportations and the ultimate [tragic] fates of Siegmund and Berta S. Jellinek, Hugo
Hugo’s two younger daughters, Berta and Anna Jellinek.
Von Habsburg Zu Herzl: Jüdische
Studentenkultur in Mitteleuropa 1848 - 1948. (From Habsburg to Herzl: Jewish Student Culture in
Central Europe 1848 - 1948) (KRAL, Berndorf, Austria, 2021).
This book expands (beyond the DAVID article reproduced in this Website’s
Document section) on the context, history and activities of the Reading and Lecture Hall for
Jewish University Students in Vienna, in which Dr. Karl Jellinek was an active participant and
President between 1922 - 1938. The book’s second chapter: The Student “Reading and Lecture
Halls” at Austrian Universities from 1848 to 1918 (pp. 39 - 63) provides the reader (of German)
significant, additional, detailed and illustrated information on the historical background, as well as the
multiple activities of ‘Karl Jellinek’s’ particular Jewish “Reading and Lecture
Hall” and on his leadership role in it.
There is also a brief list of facts about Karl Jellinek’s education, military service in WWI,
profession as a criminal defense lawyer and life-long Zionist endeavors, on p. 279. of the book’s
Das Jüdische Komitee für Theresienstadt (The Jewish Committee for Thereisenstadt),
consisting of Dr. Gustav Jellinek, Dr. Ernst Feldsberg et al.,
Totenbuch Theresienstadt: Deportierte Aus Österreich (The Theresienstadt Book of
the Dead: Deported from Austria) (Vienna, 1971).
Note: In the Documents Section of this website,
readers can see and understand this book's German language title pages and the page containing specific
information on Siegmund Jellinek’s deportation to
The Jews of Nazi Vienna 1938 - 1945 : Rescue
and Destruction (Palgraves Studies in the History of Genocide, Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, UK)
Objects of Remembrance: A Memoir of American
Opportunities and Viennese Dreams (Budapest, 2009).
Advokaten 1938: Das
Schicksal der in den Jahren 1938 bis 1945 verfolgten österreichischen Rechtsanwältinnen und
Rechtsanwälte (Lawyers 1938: The Fate of Austrian Lawyers Persecuted in the Years 1938 - 1945)
Note: Information on Dr. Karl Jellinek, one of the approximately 1800
persecuted Austrian Jewish lawyers, is on page 191.
See also the English Summary of this book, on pages IX - XIV in this otherwise
German language book.
Pushing Time Away: My Grandfather and the Tragedy of
Jewish Vienna (New York, 2003).
The Setting of the Pearl: Vienna Under Hitler (New
Paper Love: Searching for the Girl My Grandfather Left
Behind [in Vienna] (New York, 2014).
Strangers at Home and Abroad:
Recollections of Austrian Jews Who Escaped Hitler (Jeffferson, North Carolina, and London,
Selected Literary Works
I Keep Recalling: The Holocaust Poems of Jacob
Glatstein (first published in Yiddish in six volumes of poetry, ca. 1938 - 66; English and Yiddish ed.
Jersey City, New Jersey, 1993).
Se questo e un uomo (first published in Italian,
published in English as Survival in Auschwitz: the Nazi Assault on Humanity, New York, 1996).
______________. Sommersi e i un salvati (first
published in Italian, 1986; published in English as The Drowned and the Saved, New York, 1989).
Fugitive Pieces (New York, 1997).
Note: Among this book’s many powerful and
memorable lines are the following: “Murder steals from a man his future. It steals from him his
own death. But it must not steal from him his life.” (p. 120).
A Prayer for Katerina Horovitzova (Woodstock, New
Gertruda’s Oath: A Child, A Promise, and a Heroic
Escape During World War II ( first published in Hebrew, 2007; English ed., New York, 2009).
From the “Author’s
Note” on the page before the “Introduction” on p. 1:
“Gertruda’s Oath is a true
story... Michael and Gertruda’s story, and the story of all those affected by the Holocaust is
poignant history, and is here told as close to fact as possible.”
Life with a Star (New York, 1989).
Night (New York, 1960).
Selected Books of Shoah Letters
Bacharach, Zwi, Gutman, Israel and authors of the 117 letters. Last Letters from the
Shoah (Tel-Aviv and Jerusalem, 2004).
Note: Before the letters, Zwi Bacharach provides an
introduction and essay entitled “The Holocaust Reflected through Personal Experience,” in which
he explains the letters’ themes of “Testimony; A Sense of Doom, Despair and Hope; Wills and Last
Requests; Concern for Children; Revenge, Dilemmas, Acceptance, Faith, Resistance and Suicide; The
Underground and Coded language. In the summary at the end of this book (p. 387), Zwi Bacharach declares
“The letters in this book were written
about reality, in the midst of reality, and only reality emerges from them, and indeed their words were
written in blood.”
Between the Lines: Letters from the Holocaust
(Margate, New Jersey, 2005).
Note: Anne and her older brother
Günter in England, were able to correspond with their parents who were trapped in Berlin. The letters
began in 1938 and ended in 1943 when their father and mother were deported to Theresienstadt. Martin
Gilbert’s introductory remarks on p. 7 of this book are truly apt for these letters, as they are for
the other collections of letters listed here, and for the Jellinek family letters:
“One cannot overestimate the importance of
contemporary letters when it comes to the story of the fate of the Jews in the Nazi era. It is through
such letters that we hear the authentic voice of those who witnessed that terrible time... A letter penned
on a certain day cannot be influenced by what came later. It is the raw material of history, and
brings us as close as we can ever get to the moods and realities of the Holocaust.”
Anne Fox has written about her
experiences escaping Nazi Germany on the Kindertransport in My Heart in a Suitcase, which has been
adapted into a moving play, and in the book which she co-authored with Eva Abraham-Podietz: Ten Thousand
Children. Anne has also generously worked on the translations of many of the Jellinek family
And the World Closed Its Doors: The Story of One
Family Abandoned to the Holocaust (New York, 2003).
Letters From the End of a Dark Tunnel (Margate, New
Our Only Hope: Eddie’s Holocaust Story and
the Weisz Family Correspondence, Studies in the Shoah Volume XXX (Lanham, Maryland, 2008).